(Analysis by Benjamin Qi)

Subtask 1: $P=1$

Let's start by computing the following quantity $Q$: the minimum number of moves to move all of liquid $1$ to tube $1$ and all of liquid $2$ to tube $2$. Once we know how to compute this quantity, we can compute $Q'$, the minimum number of moves to move all of liquid $1$ to tube $2$ and all of liquid $2$ to tube $1$, in a similar way. The answer for this subtask will then be $\min(Q,Q')$.

The current state of liquid in the tubes and beakers can be represented by three binary strings $f$, $s$, and $b$, with $f$ and $s$ defined the same way as the problem statement, and $b$ denoting the state of the beaker from bottom to top.

First, observe that $Q$ does not change if we make the following simplifications:

1. Compress runs of equal characters in all three strings. For example, 1221 becomes 121 and 2211 becomes 21.
2. Remove the first character of $f$ if it is $1$, since this liquid never needs to leave tube $1$
3. Similarly, remove the first character of $s$ if it is $2$.

Next, observe that $Q$ must be at least the number of characters after simplifying, because after performing any move and simplifying again, the number of characters will have stayed the same or gone down by one. The final state corresponds to all of $f$, $s$, and $b$ simplifying to empty strings.

Is $Q$ exactly equal to the number of characters after simplifying? It is when we don't need to utilize the beaker. For example, consider the following input:

f = "111112"
s = "222222"


After simplifying,

f = "2"
s = ""


So the number of characters after simplifying is one, and $Q=1$ because we only need one pour to separate the liquid (tube 1 into tube 2). However, when the number of characters after simplifying is greater than one, we need to utilize the beaker, and when we first pour liquid into the beaker the number of characters after simplifying does not change. In such cases, $Q$ is at least the number of characters after simplifying plus one. For example, the first test case of the sample input after simplifying becomes:

f = "21"
s = "1"


There are three characters after simplifying, and $Q=4$.

Is it true that $Q$ is always at most the number of characters after simplifying plus one? Assuming this allows you to solve the first subtask. At this point, it's not obvious why this assumption is correct, but we will prove that it works later by providing a construction using exactly this number of moves.

Implementation (which computes $\min(Q,Q')$ directly rather than $Q$ and $Q'$ separately):

def to_reduced_list(s):
"""Compress runs of equal chars in a string s
>>> to_reduced_list('2211')
['2', '1']
"""
l = []
for c in s:
if len(l) > 0 and l[-1] == c:
continue
l.append(c)
return l

def solve():
N, P = map(int, input().split())
assert P == 1
tubes = [to_reduced_list(input()) for _ in range(2)]
tubes.append([])
ans = len(tubes[0]) + len(tubes[1]) - 2
# ^ num chars after simplifying, if tubes[0] and tubes[1] start with different chars and we choose the better of Q and Q'
if tubes[0][0] == tubes[1][0]:
ans += 1
if ans > 1:  # require extra pour into beaker
ans += 1
print(ans)

T = int(input())
for _ in range(T):
solve()


Subtask 2: $P=2$

Here we provide a construction that moves all of liquid $i$ into tube $i$ and achieves a number of moves at most the number of characters after compressing runs plus two. From the previous subtask, we know that the answer must be at least the number of characters after compressing runs minus two. Therefore, our solution is at most four away from optimal.

1. While tube $2$ is nonempty, pour it into tube $1$ if tube $2$ has liquid $2$ on top, or to the beaker otherwise.
2. While tube $1$ is nonempty, pour it into tube $2$ if tube $1$ has liquid $2$ on top, or to the beaker otherwise.
3. Now, tube $2$ contains all of liquid $2$ and the beaker contains all of liquid $1$. The final step is to pour from the beaker into tube $1$.

Implementation of the strategy described above (using 0- instead of 1-indexing):

def to_reduced_list(s):
"""Compress runs of equal chars in a string s
>>> to_reduced_list('2211')
['2', '1']
"""
l = []
for c in s:
if len(l) > 0 and l[-1] == c:
continue
l.append(c)
return l

def solve():
N, P = map(int, input().split())
assert P == 2
tubes = [to_reduced_list(input()) for _ in range(2)]
tubes.append([])

moves = []

def move(src, dst):
moves.append((src, dst))
if len(tubes[dst]) == 0 or tubes[dst][-1] != tubes[src][-1]:
tubes[dst].append(tubes[src][-1])
tubes[src].pop()

while len(tubes[1]) > 0:
if tubes[1][-1] == "2":
move(1, 0)
else:
move(1, 2)
while len(tubes[0]) > 0:
if tubes[0][-1] == "2":
move(0, 1)
else:
move(0, 2)
move(2, 0)

print(len(moves))
for a, b in moves:
print(1 + a, 1 + b)

T = int(input())
for _ in range(T):
solve()


Subtask 3: $P=3$

Our construction achieving the optimal number of moves is similar to the one for the previous subtask in the sense that we first empty out most of one tube, then most of the other, and finally the beaker.

Before describing the strategy we use the following trick to ensure that we never need to deal with a tube being empty, which makes the implementation simpler. Suppose we choose to move all of liquid $1$ to tube $1$ and liquid $2$ to tube $2$; then let's insert an extra $1$ in front of $f$ and an extra $2$ in front of $s$ before compressing runs (or the other way around if we choose to move liquid $1$ to tube $2$ and liquid $2$ to tube $1$).

Our strategy is as follows. We assume that before every move we perform step $1$ only of the simplification process described in subtask 1 (compressing runs of equal characters).

1. If the last characters of $f$ and $s$ are equal, choose any tube with a string of length greater than one and pour it into the other tube.
2. If both $f$ and $s$ now have length one, we're done. Otherwise, we're in a case where the beaker must be used. Choose any tube with a string of length greater than one and pour it into the beaker. The last characters of both tube strings are now equal.
3. Suppose the beaker now contains liquid $i$. Choose the tube whose string has first character not equal to $i$, and repeatedly pour from it until its string has length equal to one. We should pour it into either the beaker or the other tube depending on which pour reduces the number of characters after compressing by one.
4. Next, pour from the other tube until its string has length one.
5. Finally, pour from the beaker into one of the tubes.

Example:

Initial:
f = 12121
s = 2121

After step 1:
f = 1212
s = 2121

After step 2:
f = 1212
s = 212
b = 1

After step 3:
f = 1212
s = 2
b = 1

After step 4:
f = 1
s = 2
b = 1

After step 5:
f = 1
s = 2


Every move besides the first move into the beaker reduces the number of characters after compressing by one, so this construction matches the lower bound we described in subtask 1.

Implementation:

def to_reduced_list(s):
"""Compress runs of equal chars in a string s, and converts to int
>>> to_reduced_list('2211')
[2, 1]
"""
l = []
for c in s:
c = int(c)
if len(l) > 0 and l[-1] == c:
continue
l.append(c)
return l

def solve():
N, P = map(int, input().split())
tubes = [to_reduced_list(input()) for _ in range(2)]
tubes.append([])
if tubes[0][0] == tubes[1][0]:  # ensure f and s start with different chars
tubes[0].insert(0, tubes[0][0] ^ 3)

ans = len(tubes[0]) + len(tubes[1]) - 2
if ans > 1:
ans += 1

print(ans)
if P == 1:
return

moves = []

def move(src, dst):
moves.append((src, dst))
if len(tubes[dst]) == 0 or tubes[dst][-1] != tubes[src][-1]:
tubes[dst].append(tubes[src][-1])
tubes[src].pop()

if tubes[0][-1] == tubes[1][-1]:  # step 1: if equal last chars
if len(tubes[0]) > len(tubes[1]):
move(0, 1)
else:
move(1, 0)

for i in range(2):
if len(tubes[i]) > 1:
move(i, 2)  # step 2: move from any tube with string length > 1 to beaker
idx_to_empty = 0  # step 3: choose a tube to (almost) empty first
if tubes[idx_to_empty][0] == tubes[2][0]:
idx_to_empty ^= 1
while len(tubes[idx_to_empty]) > 1:
if tubes[idx_to_empty][-1] == tubes[2][0]:
move(idx_to_empty, 2)
else:
move(idx_to_empty, idx_to_empty ^ 1)
idx_to_empty ^= 1  # step 4: next, (almost) empty the other tube
while len(tubes[idx_to_empty]) > 1:
if tubes[idx_to_empty][-1] == tubes[2][0]:
move(idx_to_empty, 2)
else:
move(idx_to_empty, idx_to_empty ^ 1)
move(2, idx_to_empty)  # step 5: finish
break

assert len(moves) == ans
for a, b in moves:
print(1 + a, 1 + b)

T = int(input())
for _ in range(T):
solve()