(Analysis by Rohin Garg)

Subtask 1: $T = 0$

First, root the tree at node $1$. It is first important to observe that the order of visited pastures is similar to one of a DFS starting at node $1$. This is because a DFS order minimizes the total amount of time to visit all pastures. The length a path traversed by a DFS is exactly $2(n-1)$, as it crosses each edge exactly twice. Because each edge must be crossed at least twice to visit the nodes in its subtree, this is a lower bound on the amount of time necessary, proving its optimality.

With this observation, what remains is to determine the order that Farmer John visits the children of each node. Note that once this order is determined for every node, the DFS order (and therefore the order that the pastures are visited) is uniquely determined.

Define $dp_u$ as the minimum amount of fertilizer necessary to fertilize all pastures in the subtree of $u$, such that the path starts at node $u$ at time $t = 0$, and also ends at node $u$. Let $\text{size}_u$ be the size of the subtree of node $u$, and $\text{sum}_u$ be the sum of $a_x$ over all nodes $x$ in the subtree of $u$.

If Farmer John visits the subtree of child $v$ at time $t$, it takes $dp_v + \text{sum}_v \cdot t$ fertilizer. This is because, during the first $t$ seconds, the value of each pasture $x$ in the subtree of $v$ increased by $a_v$. With this in mind, consider a fixed order of the children of node $u$, call it $v_1, v_2, \ldots v_k$. The contribution of node $v_i$ to $dp_u$ in a particular order is $dp_{v_i} + a_{v_i} \cdot \left(1 + \sum\limits_{j = 0}^{i-1} 2 \cdot \text{size}_{v_j}\right)$. This directly follows from the previous observations, as the amount of time it takes to visit the subtree of child $v$ is $2 \cdot (\text{size}_v - 1) + 2 = 2 \cdot \text{size}_v $ (the extra $2$ comes from the time it takes to cross the edge $(u, v)$), with the $1$ coming from crossing the edge $(u, v_i)$. Therefore, we need to minimize the sum of this quantity over all permutations of $v_1, v_2, \ldots v_k$.

Note that the sum of $dp_{v_i}$ is constant, regardless of the order of the children, as is the sum of $a_{v_i} \cdot 1$. After moving the $2$ out of the summation, what remains is to minimize $a_{v_i} \cdot \sum\limits_{j = 0}^{i-1} \text{size}_{v_j}$. Consider the case where there are two children: $v_1$ and $v_2$. If $v_1$ is placed before $v_2$, the value of the expression is $a_{v_1} \cdot 0 + a_{v_2} \cdot \text{size}_{v_1} = a_{v_2} \cdot \text{size}_{v_1}$. Similarly, if $v_2$ is placed before $v_1$, the value of the expression is $a_{v_1} \cdot \text{size}_{v_2}$. Placing $v_1$ before $v_2$ is therefore optimal if $a_{v_2} \cdot \text{size}_{v_1} \leq a_{v_1} \cdot \text{size}_{v_2}$, or equivalently $\frac{\text{size}_{v_1}}{a_{v_1}} \leq \frac{\text{size}_{v_2}}{a_{v_2}}$. To complete the solution, we must make use of an exchange argument.. Consider an optimal ordering of the children. Consider some adjacent pair of children $v_1$ and $v_2$. Using a similar argument as above, we can show that if $\frac{\text{size}_{v_1}}{a_{v_1}} \geq \frac{\text{size}_{v_2}}{a_{v_2}}$, we can swap the order of children and it could only improve the cost. Therefore, an optimal solution must be sorted in non-decreasing order of $\frac{\text{size}_{v_i}}{a_{v_i}}$, completing the solution.

Subtask 2: $T = 1$

The first key difference in this problem is that the minimum amount of time to visit the pastures is no longer always $2(n-1)$. Recall that earlier, Farmer John had to pass through each edge at least $2$ times. However, let the last node that Farmer John visits be $v$. Farmer John only has to pass through the edges on the path from $1$ to $v$ exactly once. The number of these edges is exactly the depth of $v$ in the tree. Therefore, the amount of time it will take him is $n - \text{depth}_v$, so he must maximize the depth of the final node in his path.

For each subtree, calculate a second dp value $dp_u$, defined similarly to the initial dp with the extra restriction that it must end on a node with maximum depth in the subtree. The answer to the problem is $dp_1$.

To calculate $pd_u$, iterate over the child $v$ that is put last in the order (making sure to only check nodes with maximum depth in their subtree). Note that, from the same argument as earlier, the ordering for the rest of the nodes can be determined. Let's compute the difference between $dp_u$ and the cost of moving node $v$ to the end of the order. The contribution of $v$ to the sum becomes $pd_v + a_v \cdot \sum\limits_{i = 0}^{\text{number of children - 1}} 2 \cdot \text{size}_{v_i}$, which can be computed in constant time. The values of the children who initially appeared before node $v$ in the order remain the same, and the values of the children who appeared after node $v$ decrease by $2 a_i \cdot \text{size}_v$. This value can be computed with a simple suffix sum, allowing us to calculate the value in constant time, allowing us to calculate $pd$ in linear time, solving the problem.

Danny Mittal's code:

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.StringTokenizer;

public class FertilizingPastures {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));
        StringTokenizer tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(in.readLine());
        int n = Integer.parseInt(tokenizer.nextToken());
        int t = Integer.parseInt(tokenizer.nextToken());
        int[] parents = new int[n + 1];
        List<Integer>[] children = new List[n + 1];
        children[1] = new ArrayList<>();
        long[] subtrees = new long[n + 1];
        long[] rateSums = new long[n + 1];
        for (int a = 2; a <= n; a++) {
            tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(in.readLine());
            parents[a] = Integer.parseInt(tokenizer.nextToken());
            rateSums[a] = Long.parseLong(tokenizer.nextToken());
            children[a] = new ArrayList<>();

        long[][] dp = new long[2][n + 1];
        int[] mostEdgesSaved = new int[n + 1];

        for (int a = n; a > 0; a--) {
            subtrees[a] = 1;

            for (int b : children[a]) {
                subtrees[a] += subtrees[b];
                rateSums[a] += rateSums[b];
                dp[0][a] += dp[0][b];
                mostEdgesSaved[a] = Math.max(mostEdgesSaved[a], mostEdgesSaved[b] + 1);

            children[a].sort((b, c) -> Long.compare(rateSums[b] * subtrees[c], rateSums[c] * subtrees[b]));

            long currRateSum = 0;
            for (int b : children[a]) {
                dp[0][a] += (2L * subtrees[b]) * currRateSum;
                currRateSum += rateSums[b];
            dp[0][a] += currRateSum;

            if (!children[a].isEmpty()) {
                dp[1][a] = Long.MAX_VALUE;

                currRateSum = 0;
                long currEdgesTravelled = 0;
                for (int b : children[a]) {
                    if (mostEdgesSaved[b] + 1 == mostEdgesSaved[a]) {
                        dp[1][a] = Math.min(dp[1][a], dp[0][a] - ((2L * subtrees[b]) * currRateSum) + (currEdgesTravelled * rateSums[b]) - dp[0][b] + dp[1][b]);
                    currRateSum += rateSums[b];
                    currEdgesTravelled += 2L * subtrees[b];

        if (t == 0) {
            System.out.println((2 * (n - 1)) + " " + dp[0][1]);
        } else {
            System.out.println(((2 * (n - 1)) - mostEdgesSaved[1]) + " " + dp[1][1]);