Define a relation $R$ on empty and water cells where $aRb$ if and only if $a$ being water implies that $b$ is water. It is clearly reflexive and transitive. Also note that if $aRb$ then $height(a)\ge height(b)$. Thus, cycles can only exist between vertices on the same layer. However, if we restrict the relation to cells with the same height, it is also symmetric. Thus, we can divide cells on each layer into (completely connected) equivalence classes.

Compressing these equivalence classes, we get a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Note that equivalence classes are not edge-connected; for example, in the sample case, the squares on the second row are all in the same equivalence class. Let $G$ be the graph with the minimum number of edges whose transitive closure is the DAG. (To compute the transitive closure of a graph, if edges $a\to b$ and $b\to c$ exist then add edge $a\to c$, if it is not already present in the graph.)

If there is an edge from $a$ to $b$ in the DAG, then $height(a)=height(b)+1$. Suppose otherwise. Clearly $height(a)>height(b)$. There must be a path from $a$ to $b$ using only cells of height at most $height(a)$. Take the last vertex $c$ on that path with height $height(b)+1$ (it must exist). This divides the path into a path from $a$ to $c$ using cells of height at most $height(a)$ and a path from $c$ to $b$ using cells of height at most $height(c)$. This contradicts the minimality of $G$.

Each node has at most one predecessor. Suppose there is an edge from $a$ to $b$ and an edge from $c$ to $b$. Then, $height(a)=height(b)+1=height(c)$ and concatenating the paths yields a path from $a$ to $c$ using only cells of height at most $height(a)$. Then $a$ and $c$ must be the same equivalence class.

Hence, $G$ is a (directed) forest. $G$ can be computed efficiently from the cave by sweeping upwards with a union-find data structure. Then, this problem can be solved by DP on $G$.

Ben - I didn't have any solution in mind for the $N,M\le 10$ subtask. It was merely intended to be a small correctness test.

#include <cstdio> #include <cstring> #include <vector> const int MOD=1e9+7; char grid[1005][1005]; int uf[1005][1005]; int up[1005][1005]; int id[1005][1005]; std::vector<int> children[1005*1005]; int tree_size=1; int dp[1005*1005]; int find(int layer,int a){ while(uf[layer][a]!=a){ a=uf[layer][a]=uf[layer][uf[layer][a]]; } return a; } void merge(int layer,int a,int b){ a=find(layer,a),b=find(layer,b); uf[layer][a]=b; } void pull(int i){ dp[i]=1; //product of children if not filling root for(int j:children[i]){ dp[i]=1LL*dp[i]*dp[j]%MOD; } //+1 for filling root (and everything else) dp[i]++; } int main(){ freopen("cave.in","r",stdin); freopen("cave.out","w",stdout); int N,M; scanf("%d %d",&N,&M); for(int i=0;i<N;i++){ scanf("%s",grid[i]); } for(int i=0;i<N;i++){ for(int j=0;j<M;j++){ uf[i][j]=j; } } memset(up,-1,sizeof up); for(int i=N-1;i>=0;i--){ for(int j=0;j<M;j++){ uf[i][j]=j; } for(int j=0;j+1<M;j++){ if(grid[i][j]=='.'&&grid[i][j+1]=='.'){ merge(i,j,j+1); } } if(i<N-1){ for(int j=0;j<M;j++){ if(grid[i][j]=='.'&&grid[i+1][j]=='.'){ if(up[i+1][find(i+1,j)]==-1){ up[i+1][find(i+1,j)]=j; }else{ merge(i,j,up[i+1][find(i+1,j)]); } } } } } for(int i=N-1;i>=0;i--){ for(int j=0;j<M;j++){ if(grid[i][j]=='.'&&find(i,j)==j){ id[i][j]=tree_size++; } } } for(int i=N-1;i>=0;i--){ for(int j=0;j<M;j++){ if(grid[i][j]=='.'&&find(i,j)==j){ if(up[i][j]!=-1){ children[id[i-1][find(i-1,up[i][j])]].push_back(id[i][j]); }else{ children[0].push_back(id[i][j]); } } } } for(int i=1;i<tree_size;i++){ pull(i); } pull(0); printf("%d\n",(dp[0]+MOD-1)%MOD); }